5.5 Broader Perspective

HTTP is the New Narrow Waist

The Internet has been described as having a narrow waist architecture, with one universal protocol in the middle (IP), widening to support many transport and application protocols above it (e.g., TCP, UDP, RTP, SunRPC, DCE-RPC, gRPC, SMTP, HTTP, SNMP) and able to run on top of many network technologies below (e.g., Ethernet, PPP, WiFi, SONET, ATM). This general structure has been a key to the Internet becoming ubiquitous: by keeping the IP layer that everyone has to agree to minimal, a thousand flowers were allowed to bloom both above and below. This is now a widely understood strategy for any platform trying to achieve universal adoption.

But something else has happened over the last 30 years. By not addressing all the issues the Internet would eventually face as it grew (e.g., security, congestion, mobility, real-time responsiveness, and so on) it became necessary to introduce a series of additional features into the Internet architecture. Having IP’s universal addresses and best-effort service model was a necessary condition for adoption, but not a sufficient foundation for all the applications people wanted to build.

We’re yet to see some of these solutions—future chapters will describe how the Internet manages congestion (Chapter 6), provides security (Chapter 8), and supports real-time multimedia applications (Chapters 7 and 9)—but it is informative to take this opportunity to reconcile the value of a universal narrow waist with the evolution that inevitably happens in any long-lived system: the “fixed point” around which the rest of the architecture evolves has moved to a new spot in the software stack. In short, HTTP has become the new narrow waist; the one shared/assumed piece of the global infrastructure that makes everything else possible. This didn’t happen overnight or by proclamation, although some did anticipate it would happen. The narrow waist drifted slowly up the protocol stack as a consequence of an evolution (to mix geoscience and biological metaphors).

HTTP (plus TLS, TCP, and IP) forming the narrow waist of today's Internet architecture.

Putting the narrow waist label purely on HTTP is an over simplification. It’s actually a team effort, with the HTTP/TLS/TCP/IP combination now serving as the Internet’s common platform.

  • HTTP provides global object identifiers (URIs) and a simple GET/PUT interface.

  • TLS provides end-to-end communication security.

  • TCP provides connection management, reliable transmission, and congestion control.

  • IP provides global host addresses and a network abstraction layer.

In other words, even though you are free to invent your own congestion control algorithm, TCP solves this problem quite well, so it makes sense to reuse that solution. Similarly, even though you are free to invent your own RPC protocol, HTTP provides a perfectly serviceable one (which because it comes bundled with proven security, has the added feature of not being blocked by enterprise firewalls), so again, it makes sense to reuse it rather than reinvent the wheel.

Somewhat less obviously, HTTP also provides a good foundation for dealing with mobility. If the resource you want to access has moved, you can have HTTP return a redirect response that points the client to a new location. Similarly, HTTP enables injecting caching proxies between the client and server, making it possible to replicate popular content in multiple locations and save clients the delay of going all the way across the Internet to retrieve some piece of information. (Both of these capabilities are discussed in Section 9.1.) Finally, HTTP has been used to deliver real-time multimedia, in an approach known as adaptive streaming. (See how in Section 7.2.)

[!NOTE|label:Broader Perspective] To continue reading about the cloudification of the Internet, see Software Defined Traffic Engineering.

To learn more about the centrality of HTTP, we recommend:

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